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^{ }  denotes multiplication of two polynomials over the binary field GF(2) modulo
x^{128}+x^{7}+x^{2}+x+1 
K1 
is the encryption key (256bit for each supported cipher; i.e, AES, Serpent, and Twofish) 
K2 
is the secondary key (256bit for each supported cipher; i.e, AES, Serpent, and Twofish) 
i 
is the cipher block index within a data unit; for the first cipher block within a data unit, i = 0 
n 
is the data unit index within the scope of K1; for the first data unit, n = 0 
a 
is a primitive element of Galois Field (2^{128}) that corresponds to polynomial x (i.e., 2) 
Note: The remaining symbols are defined in the section Notation. 
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